Intrigue and excitement around Magic Squares quickly spread across cultures. Investigations into Magic Squares next turned to Arabia as early as the Seventh Century. Like the Chinese before them, the Arabs were able to find religious significance. Under the influence of Indian culture, the Arab Mathematicians were the first to develop Magic Squares of Higher orders, 5 x 5 and 6 x 6.

In fact, the Arabic mathematician Ahmad Al-Buni 1250 was the first to attribute mystical properties along with astrological calculations to Magic Squares, in 1250.

Meanwhile, the Hindus in India were working on a 4 x 4 Magic Square of their own. During the tenth century they first introduced the Chautisa Yantra.

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Next up are the Trapeziums. There are eight “even” trapeziums, (within a 4 x 3 rectangle) in this square whose sums are also 34!

 

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All of these special features make this a pandiagonal magic square, whereby the rows and columns can be interchanged and preserve these same features.

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